Electronic ISSN 2287-0237



  1. Edwards ST, Mafi JN, Landon BE. Trends and quality of care in outpatient visits to generalist and specialist physicians delivering primary care in the United States, 1997-2010. J Gen Intern Med 2014;29(6):947-55.

  2. Go AS, Rao RK, Dauterman KW, et al. A systematic review of the effects of physician specialty on the treatment of coronary disease and heart failure in the United States. Am J Med 2000;108(3):216-26.

  3. Bateman A, Fonagy P. Mentalization based treatment for borderline personality disorder. World Psychiatry 2010;9(1):11-5.

  4. Ayanian JZ, Guadagnoli E, McNeil BJ, et al. Treatment and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction among patients of cardiologists and generalist physicians. Arch Intern Med 1997;157(22):2570-6.

  5. Chin MH, Friedmann PD, Cassel CK, et al. Differences in generalist and specialist physicians’ knowledge and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for congestive heart failure. J Gen Int Med 1997;12(9):523-30.

  6. Jollis JG, DeLong ER, Peterson ED, et al. Outcome of acute myocardial infarction according to the specialty of the admitting physician. N Engl J Med 1996;335(25):1880-7.

  7. Harrold LR, Field TS, Gurwitz JH. Knowledge, patterns of care, and outcomes of care for generalists and specialists. J Gen Intern Med. 1999;14(8):499-511.

  8. Wibulpolprasert S, Pengpaibon P. Integrated strategies to tackle the inequitable distribution of doctors in Thailand: four decades of experience. Human Resources for Health. 2003 11/2510/15/received11/25/accepted;1:12.

  9. Wibulpolprasert S, Pachanee C. Addressing the internal brain drain of medical doctors in Thailand: the story and lesson learned. Glob Soc Policy. 2008;8:12–5.

  10. Kanchanachitra C, Lindelow M, Johnston T, et al. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services. Lancet 2011;377(9767):769-81.

  11. Meyer GS, Cheng EY, Elting J. Differences between generalists and specialists in characteristics of patients receiving gastrointestinal procedures. J Gen Int Med 2000;15(3):188-94.

  12. Mendez CM, Harrington DW, Christenson P, et al. Impact of hospital variables on case mix index as a marker of disease severity. Population Health Manage 2014;17(1):28-34.

  13. Roter DL, Hall JA. Physician gender and patient-centered communication: a critical review of empirical research. Annu Rev Public Health 2004;25:497-519.

  14. American College of Surgeons Health Policy Research Institute. The Surgical Workforce in the United States: Profile and Recent Trends. 2010 (Aceessed March 1, 2017, at cited 2017 at http://www.acshpri.org/documents/ACSH- PRI_Surgical_Workforce_in_US _apr2010.pdf.).

  15. Onyemocho A, SonnyJohnbull O, Umar AA, et al. Prefer- ence for health provider¡ ̄s gender amongst women attend- ing obstetrics/ gynecology clinic, ABUTH, Zaria, North- western Nigeria. Am J Public Health Res 2014;2(1):21-6.

  16. 1Reid I. Patients’ preference for male or female breast surgeons: questionnaire study. BMJ 1998;317(7165):1051-60.

  17. Schmittdiel J, Selby JV, Grumbach K, et al. Women’s provider preferences for basic gynecology care in a large health maintenance organization. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 1999;8(6):825-33.

  18. Ahmad F, Gupta H, Rawlins J, et al. Preferences for gender of family physician among Canadian European-descent and South-Asian immigrant women. Fam Pract 2002;19(2):146-53.

  19. Janssen SM, Lagro-Janssen AL. Physician’s gender, communication style, patient preferences and patient satisfaction in gynecology and obstetrics: a systematic review. Patient Educ Couns 2012;89(2):221-6.

  20. Shamrani H. A cross-sectional survey of womens provider gender preferences for gynecology and obstetrics care at King Abdulaziz University Hospital. J Women’s Health Care 2016;5(6):1-7.

  21. World Bank Organization. Urbanization in Thailand is dominated by the Bangkok urban area: The World Bank Group; 2010. (Aceessed March 1, 2017, at https://www. worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2015/01/26/urbanization-in- thailand-is-dominated-by-the-bangkok-urban-area.).

  22. Kobayashi Y, Takaki H. Geographic distribution of physicians in Japan. Lancet 1992;340(8832):1391-3.

  23. Toyabe S. Trend in geographic distribution of physicians in Japan. Int J Equity Health 2009;8:5.

  24. Bangkok Dusit Medical Services. Annual Report 2016. (Aceessed March 20, 2017, at http://bdms.listedcompany. com/ar.html.).

  25. Case Mix Index-1996-2015: chhs.data.ca.gov. (Aceessed March 1, 2017, at https://www.opendatanetwork.com/dataset/ chhs.data.ca.gov/5pvx-hnf7.